易智编译:第一次写论文从哪部分开始比较好?

易智编译:第一次写论文从哪部分开始比较好?

时间:2020-02-14 14:49 作者:admin 点击:
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对于第一次写论文的科研工作者来说,可能会遇到不知道从哪部分开始的情况,而且写论文是一件非常伤神的事情,对于初写论文者尤其如此,所以本文中,易智编译就提出了一些建议,建议大家可以先从材料和方法部分开始撰写。

科研人员平时就养成了每天记录和整理实验过程和数据的习惯,因此描述实验设计和过程对于初写论文者来说难度会大大降低。材料与方法部分最重要的目标是明确提供足够的详细信息和参考,让其他研究同行能够评估并重复你的研究工作。因此,请提供尽可能详尽的实验细节。以下易智编译提供几个例子,以供大家参考。

一、 示例1 :

(1)Bacteria were pelleted by centrifugation.

(2)To isolate T cells, lymph nodes were collected.

上面示例中的关键信息丢失了:(1)中细菌的离心速度,时间和温度;(2)中收集的淋巴结来源。

补充了细节信息后的描述如下:

(3)Bacteria were pelleted by centrifugation at 3000g for 15 min at 25°C.

(4) To isolate T cells, mediastinal and mesenteric lymph nodes from Balb/c mice were collected at day 7 after immunization with ovabumin.

如果你的方法在先前的论文中就已经发表过,那么就只需提供文献参考;如果你的方法尚未发布,则需要确保提供所有基本细节,如示例2所示。

二、 示例2 :

(1)Stem cells were isolated, according to Johnson.

(2)Stem cells were isolated using biotinylated carbon nanotubes coated with anti-CD34 antibodies.

此外,表达的一致性和流畅性也是材料与方法部分需要注意的地方。特别是不要混着使用主动语态与被动语态,如示例3所示。这种较为随意的表达方式容易误导读者。

三、 示例3 :

Behavioral computer-based experiments of Study 1 were programmed by using E-Prime. We took ratings of enjoyment, mood, and arousal as the patients listened to preferred pleasant music and unpreferred music by using Visual Analogue Scales (SI Methods). The preferred and unpreferred status of the music was operationalized along a continuum of pleasantness.

示例3的问题在于,读者必须从实验的观点(被动语态)切换到实验者的观点(主动语态)。此切换引起对第一句和第三句中动作执行者的困惑。为了提高以上段落的连贯性和流畅性,在选择表达语态时应保持一致:统一使用第一人称“we”或被动语态。修改后的结果如下:

(1)We programmed behavioral computer-based experiments of Study 1 by using E-Prime. We took ratings of enjoyment, mood, and arousal by using Visual Analogue Scales (SI Methods) as the patients listened to preferred pleasant music and unpreferred music. We operationalized the preferred and unpreferred status of the music along a continuum of pleasantness.

(2)Behavioral computer-based experiments of Study 1 were programmed by using E-Prime. Ratings of enjoyment, mood, and arousal were taken as the patients listened to preferred pleasant music and unpreferred music by using Visual Analogue Scales (SI Methods). The preferred and unpreferred status of the music was operationalized along a continuum of pleasantness.

如果你选择主动语态,那么你可能会重复使用“我们做了这个……”的句子,这非常影响文章的阅读感,因此,需要降低“we”的使用频次。

据报道,“材料和方法”部分是研究论文中唯一以被动语态为主,而不是使用主动语态的部分。这意味着尽管研究论文的所有其他部分都使用主动语态,但被动语态仍然是“材料和方法”部分中最主要的部分。

撰写材料和方法部分是一项细致而费时的工作,需要极高的准确性和清晰度。这就是为什么当你完成论文初稿时,应该要求同事提供尽可能多的反馈。请他们帮忙指出该部分缺少的实验细节,并提出技术性的指导意见。

综上,在描述材料和方法时要谨慎而准确。请勿在一个段落中更改语态。